Holistic (reductionist) vs Systemic approach of organizations and its impact in goals and metrics

We were talking a lot about the importance of considering companies as what they are, systems. Years of an holistic (Reductionist) approach of organizations generated a huge negative impact. The holistic approach, the scientific attempt to provide explanation of complex things in terms of ever smaller entities, says that if you have a company (system) and you separate it into its parts, then you improve each of its parts and put them back together you will have a better company (or system). The result of this thought was: 1. Independence between departments: If we think that we can have a

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